Examining the Problems Encountered by Pre-Application Teacher Candidates


  • Ali Akyol aliakyol


KPSS, Appointment, Prospective Teachers, Difficulties Before Appointment


This study mentions the social pressures, economic difficulties, and psychological problems experienced by pre-service teacher candidates. At the same time, the difficulties related to KPSS, the problems encountered in the appointment process, the solution proposals for the problem, the expectations of the candidates, and the participants’ opinions about the appointment were evaluated. For this purpose, the Phenomenology (phenomenology) design, one of the qualitative research methods, was used. In this study, the criterion sampling technique was used. The prospective teachers participating in the research are the ones who graduated from the Education Faculties of the Universities, Open Education Faculties, received formation, have the qualifications for appointment, are prepared for KPSS, and are waiting to be appointed. A semi-structured form was used as a data collection tool, and interviews were conducted with 15 participants. The research was carried out using by content analysis method and “Reasons for Choosing the Teaching Profession,” Challenges Experienced in the KPSS Preparation Period,” Social Pressures Experienced During the Appointment Process,” “Psychological Difficulties Experienced During the Appointment Process,” “Economic Difficulties Experienced During the Appointment Process,” “On the Problem of Unappointed Teachers.”Solutions”, “Despair Theme,” and “Expectations Regarding Appointment” themes were reached. According to the results obtained from the research, it was concluded that the pre-service teachers frequently experienced social pressures, had economic problems, the prolongation of the appointment process, the loss of hope and uncertain ty about the appointment negatively affected their psychology, they fell into hopelessness and anxiety, they could not make plans for the future, and they did not see the value. By looking at the candidates’ opinions, suggestions were made about the problem’s solution.


Akdemir, AS (2013). History and problems of teacher training programs in Turkey, Electronic Turkish Studies , 8(12), 15-28.

Akyuz, Y. (2001). Turkish Education History from the Beginning to 2001. Extended 8th Edition, Alpha Press Publication, Istanbul.

Altunışık, R. Coşkun, R. Bayraktaroğlu, S. and Yıldırım, E. (2010). SPSS Applied Research Methods in Social Sciences (6th Edition). Sakarya, Sakarya Publishing.

Ayas, N. (1948). National Education of the Republic of Turkey: Organizations and Histories. National Education Printing House, Ankara.

Aydın, A., Sarıer, Y., Uysal, S., Aydoğdu-Özoğlu, E., &Özer, F. (2014). Evaluation of teacher employment policies in Turkey. Journal of Educational Management in Theory and Practice , 20 (4), 397-420.

President, GA (2001). Restructuring of teaching profession and teacher training. Hacettepe University Faculty of Education Journal , 20(20), 16-25.

Chairman, G. Aydın, A. and Madden, T. (2006). A comparative view on the teacher training system in Turkey, Journal of CU Social Sciences Institute , 15(1) 35-42.

Beedie, A. and Kennedy, P. (2002). Quality of social supportpredictshopelessnessanddepression post spinalcordinjury. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 9 (3), 227-234.

Unity, E. (2020). Adaptation of Multidimensional Teacher Victimization Scale to Turkish, Investigation of Teachers’Perceptions of Victimization and Anxiety Levels: Mixed Model Study. Master’s Thesis, Çağ University, Institute of Social Sciences, Mersin.

Celkan, HY (1990). ZiyaGökalp’sEducational Sociology . Ministry of National Education Publications, Istanbul.

Ceyhan, AA (2004). Examining the hopelessness levels of teacher candidates who continue their secondary education non-thesis master’s program, Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 1, 91-101.

Ceyhan, M. (2021). The Reflections of the Educational Approach of the Union and Progress Period to the Educational Approach of the Republic Period. Master Thesis, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Institute of Social Sciences, Erzincan.

Creswell, JW (2003). Researchdesign: Qualitative, quantitativeandmixedmethodsapproaches. California: Sage Publications.

Cropley, AJ (2002). Qualitativeresearchmethods: An introductionforstudents of psychologyandeducation, Zinatne.

Cüceloglu, D. (1996). Man and Behavior. (6th Edition). Remzi Bookstore. Istanbul.

Cagbayir, Y. (2007). Ötüken Turkish Dictionary 5 . Ötüken Publications, Volume 2, Istanbul.

Çelikten, M. (2005). Teaching profession and its characteristics. Erciyes University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 1(19), 207-237.

Cinar, H. and Deaf, A. (2016). Values and attitudes of students receiving pedagogical formation education towards teaching profession (The Case of Karabük and Kastamonu University). Electronic Turkish Studies, 11 (13),361-378, DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.10035

Cinkir, S. and Institution, G. (2017). To be appointed or not to be appointed: The problems experienced by paid teachers. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education , 5 (3), 9-35.

Darity, W. and Goldsmith, AH (1993). Unemployment, socialpsychology, andunemploymenthysteresis. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 16 (1), 55-71.

Demir, MK(2011). Analysis of the behaviors that teacher candidates do not want to encounter. Journal of Buca Education Faculty. 31, 68-84.

Demirbas, B. (2022). Pre-appointment difficulties faced by pre-service teachers: A phenomenological study . Trakya Journal of Education, 12 (1), 308-324.

Demirer, DK (2012). Marketization in education and transformation in teacher labor. Work and society,1, 167-186 https://www.acarindex.com/dosyalar/makale/acarindex1423873943.pdf

Dewey, J. (2004). Democracy and Education (trans. Tufan Göbekçin), Ankara

Dilbaz, N. and Seber, G. (1993). The concept of hopelessness: Its importance in depression and suicide. Crisis Journal, 1(3), 134-138.

Doğan, T., and Shepherd, AE (2009). Investigation of the relationship between the attitudes of education faculty students towards the teaching profession and their anxiety levels. Education and Science , 34 (153).

Erturk, S (1994). Curriculum Development in Education . Meteksan, Ankara.

Eskici, M. (2013). Self-Efficacy Perceptions and Attitudes of Primary School Teachers to Constructivist Approach. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Abant İzzet Baysal University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Bolu.

Goldsmith, A. Veum, JR, and Darity, W. (1997). Unemployment, joblessness, psychologicalwell-beingandself-esteem: Theoryandevidence. Journal of Socio-Economics, 26 (2), 133-158.

Grix, J. (2010). The Foundations Of Research. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Guba, EG (1981). Criteria for assessing thetrustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Technology Research and Development , 29(2), 75-91.

Güneş, H. (2016). Turkey’s current education and thoughts, Ankara, Eyuder Publications.

Güngör, C. and Saltürk, A. (2021). Examining the news about teachers in the print media. Trakya Journal of Education .11, (1), 514-531

Guzduz, M. (2018). Development of higher education in Turkey, Ed. M. Gündüz, Chronological and Thematic History of Turkish Education, Ideal Culture Publishing, Istanbul, 255-281.

Holloway, I. and Wheeler, S. (1996). Qualitative research for nurses . Blackwell Science, Oxford, (pp.115-129).

Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: reading, using, and creating evidence. (3rd ed.). Burlington .Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Karasar, N. (1998). Scientific research method. Nobel Publication, Ankara.

Kılıç, M. and Yılmaz, B. Ş. (2015). Hopelessness and social support levels of teacher candidates preparing for the public personnel selection exam (KPSS). Journal of İnönü University Institute of Educational Sciences , 2 (3), 1-12

Kiraz, Z., and Board, N. (2018). Teacher unemployment and unappointed teachers movement in Turkey. Journal of Mersin University Faculty of Education, 14 (1), 270-302. https://doi.org/10.17860/mersinefd.344474

Krefting, L. (1991). Rigor in qualitative research: the assessment of trustworthiness. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45 (3), 214-222.

Marshall, C. & Rossman, GB (2014). Designing Qualitative Research. New York: Sage.

Mays, N. and Pope, C. (2000). Qualitative research in healthcare, assessingquality in qualitativeresearch. BMJ, 320, 50-52.

MEB, (2017). General Directorate of Teacher Training and Education, General Competencies of Teaching Profession. https://oygm.meb.gov.tr/www/ogretmenlik-meslegi-genel-yeterligi/icerik/39 Retrieved on 30.03.2022.

Merriam, SB (2013). A guide to qualitative research design and practice (Trans. Turan, S.). Nobel Publishing (Original work, 2009). Ankara.

Miles, MB and Huberman, AM (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded Sourcebook. (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks , CA: Sage

Patton, MQ (2014). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Rose, P. Beeby, J. VeParker, D. (1995). Academic rigour in the lived experience of researchers using phenomenological methods in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 21(6), 1123-1129. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.21061123.x

Rowlet, K.M.! Feather, N.T. (1987), “The Impact of Unemployment in Relation to Age and Legth of Unemployment,” Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60: 323.332

Seale, C. (1999). Quality in qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 5(4), 465-478.

Sharts-Hopko, N. C. (2002). Assessing rigor in qualitative research. Journal of the Association of Nurses In Aids Care, 13 (4), 84-86.

Speziale, HS Streubert, HJ and Carpenter, DR (2011). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative . Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Şahin, E. S. (2010). Introduction to Educational Science. 7th Edition. Sonmez, V.(Ed.) Memoir Publishing. Ankara.

Şanal, M. and Alaca, E. (2018). Teacher training from the Tanzimat to the present , Ed. M. Gündüz, Chronological and Thematic History of Turkish Education , Ideal Culture Publishing, 283-305.

Şar, AH Işıklar, A. and Aydoğan, İ. (2012). Examining the predictive variables of life satisfaction of prospective teachers waiting for appointment. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 12(23), 257-271.

Retrieved from the Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, (14.02.2022, number: 31750 , https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/14.02.2022 ).

the Turkish Official Gazette, https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/14574.pdf on 18.04.2022

TDK (2020). Current Turkish Dictionary. https://sozluk.gov.tr/

TokerGökçe, A. (2014). A study on unemployed candidate teachers who turned to a different profession due to not being appointed. Journal of Academic Social Research, 2 (1), 191-208. https://doi.org/10.16992/ASOS.64

Türnüklü, A. (2000). A qualitative research technique that can be used effectively in educational research: Interview. Journal of Educational Administration in Theory and Practice , 24, 543-559.

Van Manen, M. (2007). Phenomenology of practice. Phenomenology and Practice. 1(1), 11-30.

Varışoğlu, B. and Kaşaveklioğlu, G. (2019). Metaphors for the Concept of Unassigned Teacher, Journal of Social Sciences Research, 14(2), 473-490.

Viau, R. (2015). Motivation in School . Memoir Publishing: Ankara.

Whittemore, R. Chase, SK, and Mandle, CL (2001). Validity in qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, 11 (4), 522-537.

Yıldırım, A. and Şimşek, H. (2008). Qualitative Research Methods in Social Sciences (6th Edition). Ankara: Seçkin Publishing.

YÖK Statistics (2021). Higher Education Statistics. https://statistik.yok.gov.tr/

Yuksel, I. (2003). Examining the psycho-social consequences of unemployment (Ankara Example). Cumhuriyet University Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 4 (2), 21-38.




How to Cite

Akyol, A. (2022). Examining the Problems Encountered by Pre-Application Teacher Candidates. International Journal of Trends and Developments in Education, 2(2), 85–105. Retrieved from https://jtade.com/index.php/jtade/article/view/39